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2010 Rosacea News

Queries Regarding "Oxygen Facials" for Rosacea

Oxygen Facial

Patients frequently ask about the merit of "oxygen facials" in the treatment of rosacea.

Just around the corner from the clinic in Port Melbourne is a conventional beauty salon with a twist known as the Oxygen Skin Centre, the likely stimulus behind many of these questions.

Oxygen facials involve the spraying of pressurized oxygen over the skin, usually in combination with purportedly anti-wrinkle serums, which are claimed to work more effectively when used in combination with the method.

Hopelessly, combining antioxidants with oxygen can not only be expected to deplete or outright destroy the potential benefits of these ingredients, but forcing oxygen on skin will increase it's free radical burden and production, which leads to inflammation and aging.

The basic concept of an antioxidant is revealed by the word itself, which means a substance which inhibits oxidation (to counteract deterioration). Oxidation refers to a process of being chemically combined with oxygen.

Diffusion or outright negation of truth and reality appears to be a primary service of the beauty industry, which incredulously does nothing to actually protect the health of people's skins.

Apart from oxygen facials, patients should be aware that most products marketed as antioxidants are similarly disingenuous, having already combined with oxygen (oxidized) prior to use or having been formulated to have no bioavailability (usability) to skin in the first place.

Antioxidants are inherently unstable and must always be used fresh, having been protected from oxygen, and will likely have a relatively short shelf-life if they have a chance at being effective.

Combining antioxidants with pressurized oxygen, or adding oxygen to skin in the form of oxygen facials, is thoughtless and irresponsible.

Any reported benefits of oxygen facials are likely due to their hydrating or relaxing effects, which should not be confused with actual material benefit to skin.

You may like to refer to the following articles for further related information: Oxygen Skin Care Products and Procedures Are Always A Scam (MD); Biomedic Potent-C (discussion regarding use of oxidized Vitamin C products) (MD); Discussion of Skinceuticals CE Ferulic Samples (MD); Storing Skinceuticals Antioxidants (MD).

As an aside, we do not generally recommend the Skinceuticals Antioxidants, particularly in Australia, where they are routinely in an oxidized state before opening.

Oxygen Facials are popularly offered at several beauty salons and spas and are the basis behind brands including Karin Herzog and O2 Intraceuticals.

New Larger Size Packaging and Formulas Eliminate Preservatives/Enhance Rosacea Treatment

New in 2010, the sizes of the most popular rosacea moisturizers (Rosacea Treatment Fluid, Rosacea Treatment Cream and Rosacea Cooling Lotion) have been increased to 50 ml/1.7 fl. oz. from 30 ml./1 fl. oz. upon the availability of new hermetic (airtight) packaging.

Previously, the maximum size available without the need for paraben and other preservative additives was 30 ml./1 fl. oz.

Omission of preservatives has many documented benefits for rosacea patients (see Avoid Paraben Preservatives in Rosacea Skin Care) as well as those with especially sensitive skin and allergies (see Preservatives in Skin Care and Skin Irritation), including reduced skin inflammation, tingling, itching, burning, sun damage (see Paraben Preservatives and Sun Damage) and chemical exposure.

However it is not possible to create elaborate formulas for mass-market distribution without chemical preservation and, typically, a reduction in the amount of bioavailable ingredients used.

Rosacea Treatment Clinic formulas are produced in small batches under sterile laboratory conditions for immediate and select distribution to rosacea patients.

The naturally bacteriostatic formulas (remaining free of bacteria without added preservatives) do not lose potency, however must be used within a period of time after opening (varying depending on the product) and protected from excess temperatures and direct light.

The new hermetic (airtight) packaging for Rosacea Treatment Fluid, Rosacea Treatment Cream and Rosacea Cooling Lotion, which replaces the previous sterile glass jars, allows for greater product volume without risk of deterioration or potency.

As an added benefit, the vacuum pump-style packaging extracts all product for use, ensuring none is wasted.

Video: Concerning Ultraviolet Light

"Excerpt from the 1991 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures discussing chemically powerful ultraviolet (UVA, UVB) light, invisible to the human eye (although harmful to human skin and eyes), yet visible and beneficial to bees (and other species) in their search for nectar and pollen."

Video requires Apple Quicktime. Streaming file size: 18 mb.

For further information, see The Ultraviolet Garden.

For further reference, see:

Video supplied by Melbourne Dermatology used with permission.

Preservatives in Skin Care and Skin Irritation

Preservatives in Skin Care and Skin Irritation

Pure preservatives used in popular skin care products associated with skin irritation. Topical parabens have recently been reported to have weak oestrogenic effects (J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2002; 80; 49-60) leading to concerns about breast cancer. Research is continuing.


In all instances, patients will do better to avoid paraben preservatives in their rosacea skin care if they are able to do so.

Although paraben preservatives are generally thought to be suitable for patients without rosacea, and at the very least do not usually provoke obvious skin reactions, experience with rosacea patients confirms the relative harmfulness of this category of ingredient.

Testing proves that the ingredient causes additional inflammation and free radical damage engendering a variety of rosacea symptoms.

Rosacea patients whose skin has absorbed parabens generally exhibit greater numbers and frequency of papules, pustules and pimples.

Parabens also heighten daily ultraviolet skin damage, accelerating and encouraging sun damage and dry skin.

Rosacea Treatment Clinic Skin Care and Paraben Preservatives Content

A variety of factors allow us to avoid the use of parabens in the clinical rosacea skin care products:

  • production of only small batches — no stockpiling;

  • advanced, naturally bacteriostatic formulation techniques;

  • small, sterile glass packaging to preserve freshness — for example, products such as Rosacea De-Sensitizing Cleanser and Oil-Free Purifying Gel Cleanser are supplied as 2 x 100 mL and 2 x 120 mL respectively, rather than 1 x 200 mL and 1 x 240 mL;

  • limited, selective distribution
    — not supplied through environments or retailers requiring long shelf life.

Extended Information on Concerns Surrounding Preservatives in Skin Care

For further information, see Avoid Paraben Preservatives in Rosacea Skin Care and Paraben Preservatives and Sun Damage.

For further general skin care information and assistance, refer the section on rosacea skin care.

Contamination Versus Preservation of Cosmetics: A Review on Legislation, Usage, Infections, and Contact Allergy

Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer.

Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated cosmetics.

In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products.

In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees.

There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone.

Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics.

Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly, and this may indicate that some cosmetic products are over preserved.

As development and elicitation of contact allergy is dose dependent, over preservation of cosmetics potentially leads to increased incidences of contact allergy.

Very few studies have investigated the antimicrobial efficiency of preservatives in cosmetics, but the results indicate that efficient preservation is obtainable with concentrations well below the maximum allowed.


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Journal of Contact Dermatitis: Michael Dyrgaard Lundov, Lise Moesby, Claus Zachariae, Jeanne Duus Johansen. Department of Dermatology, National Allergy Research Centre, Gentofte University Hospital; Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen; Department of Dermatology, Gentofte University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

Examples of Preservatives used in Popular Skincare Products

  • Methylparaben
  • Ethylparaben
  • Propylparaben
  • Butylparaben
  • Benzyl-parahydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid)
  • Methyl-parahydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid)
  • Ethyl-parahydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid)
  • Propyl-parahydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid)
  • Butyl-parahydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid)
  • Parahydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid)
  • Parahydroxybenzoate (p-hydroxybenzoate)
^tit<i>le^

Pure preservatives used in popular skin care products. The majority of preservatives used in skin care products today are sourced from China and India. Topical parabens have recently been reported to have weak oestrogenic effects (J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2002; 80; 49-60) leading to concerns about breast cancer. Research is continuing.

Relatively Deleterious Properties and Ideas in Skin Care

Relatively deleterious properties and ideas of skin care are the norm:

  • preservatives, in particular, parabens;

  • mass production;

  • beauty therapy;

  • long shelf lives;

  • colouring agents;

  • purportedly "natural" skin care;

  • fragrances or other ingredients added for their scent only;

  • skin "types" — skin types assist marketing practices, there are no fixed, single skin types in reality;

  • product selection on the basis of brand or "lifestyle" marketing, rather than ingredient content.

Further Information

Unfortunate Aspects of Mainstream Skin "Care";

Avoid Paraben Preservatives in Rosacea Skin Care;

For success, see For Rosacea Patient Avoidance.

Unfortunate Aspects of Mainstream Skin "Care"

Unfortunate Aspects of Mainstream Skin >

It may have seemed like a good idea, at the time...


Commonplace skin care practices, and the products which either adorn them or help bring them into existence in the first place, are typically either:

  • more or less relatively deleterious;

  • known to be more-or-less useless by objective scientific analysis of their ingredients and the ways in which they are used.

A further argument can be made that the use of skin care which is more-or-less useless is harmful in the sense that it stands in the way of skin care which is beneficial.

Skin care practices and products which are beneficial are built around the irrefutable and unchanging organic nature of skin and not fleeting (seasonal, fashionable) ideas.

Skin care product content (ingredients) and usage that respects the skin's function and structure, providing it is optimal to the patient using it, is optimally effective without exception.

In contrast, virtually all skin care use we encounter is driven by an irrational exuberance for bad ideas forced on the public by media (advertisements, celebrity endorsement and other subversive public relations exercises) and retail.

It is an unfortunate state of affairs that women, in sales and other professional roles found within department and drug stores, beauty salons and clinics, recommend relatively deleterious skin care and treatments to one another.

It would seem that these bad ideas about skin care are made to float on the basis of an unconscious trust and politeness between women.

On the one hand, they may be unaware that the skin care they prescribe disproportionately converts the health of the end-user's skin into profit for themselves and the manufacturers with which they inadvertently collude.

On the other, it should be very obvious that the ever-expanding glut of confusing products available on the marketplace signifies a lack of efficacy because no good solutions are forthcoming.

When everything is said to work, you can be sure nothing does.

It is sheer hubris to consider mainstream skin "care" use as anything more than "retail therapy" — it is plainly not the "skin therapy" it purports to be.

Actual "skin care" is "care of the skin as an organ" and the only objective and timeless approach to the prevention and treatment of the full spectrum and permutations of skin conditions and disease.

Further "Unfortunate Skin Care" Analyses1>

Paula Begoun — The Self-Proclaimed "Cosmetic's Cop" including selected product reviews.

The Clinique 3-Step System — Melbourne Dermatology.

Bakel Skin Care — Melbourne Dermatology.

Decleor Skin Care — Melbourne Dermatology.

Avoid Paraben Preservatives in Rosacea Skin Care

Avoid Paraben Preservatives in Rosacea Skin Care

Paraben preservatives, alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben, are problematic components in virtually all mass-marketed cosmetics including facial cleansers, shampoos, conditioners, moisturizers and make-up.

Parabens are included in products to prevent growth of bacteria, fungi and mold and to extend shelf life up to and beyond the point of opening.

Most skin care products containing parabens have a shelf life of approximately 4 years.

Despite their widespread use, paraben preservatives produce overt and subclinical allergic and other undesirable reactions in rosacea patients' skins.

Overt reactions include dermatitis (itching, dryness, scaling) and inflammation (redness) which deteriorate the health and appearance of the skin.

Subclinical reactions are those which don't produce symptoms visible to the naked eye or which aren't generally sensed by patients, nevertheless these also deteriorate the skin's potential to function healthily.

Although patients are quick to spot potential overt reactions to skin care products, subclinical reactions are a greater concern for the undetected damage they produce.

Subclinical reactions may be diagnosed by patch testing using a doppler laser, a relatively expensive and time-consuming procedure unavailable to the public at large.

Because almost all skin care products contain paraben preservatives, there is likely associated damage accruing in rosacea patients' skins.

Unless a skin care product containing paraben preservatives is producing superior net improvement in your symptoms, you should discontinue its use.

Paraben Preservatives in Skin Care and Cosmetics and Systemic Absorption

When applied to the skin in products, paraben preservatives are absorbed through the skin and travel through the bloodstream and tissues (Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2005; 35:435-58).

Small amounts may also be absorbed orally through accidental ingestion in facial cleansers and shampoos.

Paraben Preservatives in Skin Care and Cancer

A study published in January 2002 (J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2002; 80; 49-60) found a high concentration of paraben preservatives in breast cancer tissue:

parabens can accumulate in hormonally sensitive tissues ... their weak oestrogenic activity can add to the more general environmental oestrogen problem.

Dr Philippa Darbre of the University of Reading School of Biological Sciences is currently studying the oestrogenic actions of parabens.

The US FDA is conducting (very slow) research into the estrogenic effects of parabens:

endocrine disruptors are chemicals that interfere with the endocrine systems, leading to adverse effects. Some chemicals do this by binding to receptors, such as the estrogen and androgen receptors. Currently, most in vitro and in vivo data are derived from assays that measure estrogenic activity, and fewer data are for assays that measure androgen activity.

The FDA Endocrine Disruptor Knowledge Base consists of a "biological activity database, relevant literature citations, computational models, and ultimately, models for risk assessment."

Paraben Preservatives and Sun Damage

Rosacea is encouraged and worsened by daily light exposure, irrespective of season or cloud coverage.

A recent study (Methylparaben potentiates UV-induced damage of skin keratinocytes — Toxicology , Volume 227 , Issue 1 - 2 , Pages 62 - 72) demonstrated that the paraben preservative methylparaben worsens skin's response to daylight:

UVB exposure significantly increased cell death, oxidative stress, NO production, lipid peroxidation and activation of transcription factors in MP-treated HaCaT keratinocytes. These results indicate that methylparaben, which has been considered a safe preservative in cosmetics, may have harmful effects on human skin when exposed to sunlight.

Always use a suitable rosacea sunscreen when using skin care products containing parabens.

Conclusions for Paraben Preservatives in Rosacea Skin Care

Although paraben preservatives are generally thought to be suitable for patients without rosacea, and at the very least do not provoke obvious skin reactions, our extensive clinical experience with rosacea patients confirms the relative harmfulness of this ingredient.

Patch testing of patients' skins comparing response to parabens on rosacea-affected facial skin vs forearm skin proves that the ingredient causes additional inflammation that encourages free radical damage engendering a variety of rosacea symptoms.

Rosacea patients whose skin has absorbed parabens generally exhibit greater numbers and frequency of papules, pustules and pimples.

When patients discontinue paraben-preserved skin care there is occasionally initial breakout associated with the skin detoxifying itself, however ultimately it achieves a healthier state of functioning (and appearance).

This mild detox-reaction is sometimes misconstrued as harmful and leads to failed treatment and a worse prognosis.

Rosacea Treatment Clinic Skin Care and Paraben Preservatives Content

A variety of factors allow us to avoid the use of parabens in the clinical rosacea skin care products:

  • production of only small batches;
  • small, sterile glass packaging;
  • advanced, naturally bacteriostatic formulation techniques;
  • limited, selective distribution — not supplied through environments or retailers requiring long shelf life.

The home-use products are stored at 20 degrees centigrade / 68 degrees fahrenheit for no longer than 2 weeks post-formulation prior to delivery.

Store at similar temperatures away from direct light and use within four months of opening.

Cutis Benzoyl Peroxide Rosacea Study Summary

A group of patients with acne rosacea was treated with 5 percent benzoyl peroxide acetone gel for four weeks and then with 10 percent benzoyl peroxide acetone gel for an additional four weeks.

A parallel group of patients was treated with a matching placebo (acetone gel vehicle). At the end of the first four weeks of treatment the dropout rate due to lack of improvement was 23 and 63 percent for benzoyl peroxide acetone gel and placebo, respectively.

Benzoyl peroxide acetone gel was superior to placebo with respect to improvement in the overall severity of the lesions when judged by photographs, and by reduction of erythema, papules, and pustules.

Results after treatment with benzoyl peroxide acetone gel were better during weeks five to eight than during weeks one to four for all lesions except telangiectasia.

Benzoyl peroxide acetone gel was superior to placebo when the overall responses were compared. In addition, the benzoyl peroxide acetone gel-treated group, but not the placebo-treated group, showed a significantly better response during weeks five to eight compared to weeks one to four.

Poor Medicine: Rosacea Treatment with Benzoyl Peroxide

Poor Medicine: Rosacea Treatment with Benzoyl Peroxide<i>

A selection of skin care products containing benzoyl peroxide — unsuitable for rosacea.


A range of studies published in respectable journals over the years (for example the Cutis study) have suggested or recommended the use of benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of rosacea.

Benzoyl peroxide works by releasing inflammatory free radical oxygen molecules deep within the skin.

The mechanism destroys propionibacterium, the bacteria which in large part causes juvenile acne, and which cannot live in the presence of oxygen.

The free radical oxygen molecules released by benzoyl peroxide are among the most damaging of all the reactive oxygen species and are implicated in premature skin aging (see Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage, Melbourne Dermatology) .

Benzoyl peroxide is popular because it is rapidly and permanently effective against juvenile acne bacteria.

This should have nothing to do with rosacea, which although it may appear like acne, lacks actual pathological acne bacteria.

Rosacea is not relieved, otherwise treated or prevented by removing acne-causing bacteria from the skin.

Moreover, benzoyl peroxide is a considerable skin irritant unsuitable for use by those with anything more than moderate skin sensitivity, irrespective of skin condition.

Benzoyl peroxide can cause severe flushing, redness and dryness in almost all individuals.

These symptoms are also those which rosacea patients are supposed to avoid because their occurrence encourages disease progression.

More About Benzoyl Peroxide

The active constituent of benzoyl peroxide is peroxide, just as you would find in bleach, which is why the ingredient has a tendency to redden brown hair and take colour from fabrics.

The benzoyl component is required to force the peroxide to penetrate the skin.

Other forms of peroxide are used in teeth whitening products and hair colourants and include hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide and calcium peroxide.

Benzoyl Peroxide Treatment Conclusions

Benzoyl peroxide is a pro-inflammatory skin irritant.

Improvements in rosacea following its use are short-lived and likely due to skin exfoliation which may be achieved by more beneficial and sustainable means. Rosacea Micro-Exfoliating Cream and RosaTox Soothing Mask Powder provide some skin-calming alternatives.

The ongoing investigation and use of benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of rosacea is significantly deleterious to patients and likely reflects embarrassingly inadequate or dated training on the behalf of dermatologists and other physicians whom fail to distinguish between "acne" and "rosacea."

The disease moniker "acne rosacea" probably assists the perpetuation of such poor rosacea treatments for its suggestion that acne bacteria are involved.

To avoid permanent worsening of your rosacea, do not use benzoyl peroxide.

If you have juvenile or otherwise conventional inflammatory acne, it is worth considering that benzoyl peroxide, while effective, is not your best or only option unless the cost of treatment is your overarching concern, and that its use may age your skin prematurely.

Recovering from Benzoyl Peroxide Treatment1>

As with all inappropriate skin care, burning, stinging and itching can persist even after poor use has come to an end.

More often than not, simply stopping the use of benzoyl peroxide is inadequate for recovery within a reasonable period of time.

Additionally, leaving the skin fragile and poorly defended is likely to encourage skin reactivity such that ordinarily beneficial skincare will also fail.

The first stage of recovery is to strengthen your skin's natural barrier (refer: Healthy Skin Barrier, Melbourne Dermatology).

  • Avoid soaps, foaming cleansers (refer Sodium Laureth Sulphate, Melbourne Dermatology) and herbal and aromatherapeutic cleansing milks (refer Skin Care Failure: Organic/Natural, Melbourne Dermatology), irrespective of any marketing claims made regarding their suitability for sensitive skin. We recommend Rosacea De-Sensitizing Cleansing Emulsion as an optimal cleansing solution containing gentle but potent anti-inflammatories and highly effective non-comedogenic moisturizers that protect your skin and it's precious moisture during cleansing.

  • Supplement your skin's moisture content with light, non-comedogenic skin hydrators which don't lose their effectiveness within a few hours of use. Use Rosacea Hydrating De-Sensitizing Mist immediately after cleansing to remove impurities in tap water from skin and avoid moisture loss before applying your moisturizer. Rosacea Hydrating Serum is a peerless moisturizer and may be applied alone, underneath or mixed with any Rosacea Moisturizer.

  • Moisturize and protect with rosacea-specific products which repair and protect the skin's barrier using high concentrations of only the best and lightest moisturizers. Any of the rosacea moisturizers achieve this aim, however if skin is extremely damaged or you need the most rapid improvement attainable, a one or two week course of Rosacea Intensive 1-Week Recovery Complex is optimal.

  • Avoid the sun as much as you can, but when exposed (even if only briefly) use a suitable rosacea sunscreen, preferably one containing soothing zinc oxide rather chemical blocks, such as Hypoallergenic Daily Wear Sunscreen SPF 20.

Lastly and critically, be patient and reasonable.

Avoid changing your skin care during the recovery period — it's been through enough and will thank you if you avoid subjecting it to new treatment challenges every few days.

Slow and steady wins the race to recovery from benzoyl peroxide treatment.

Examples of Skin Care Products containing Benzoyl Peroxide

Examples of benzoyl peroxide products include Proactiv, Obagi Clenziderm, Pan Oxyl, PCA Skin BPO 5% Cleanser, Dermalogica Special Clearing Booster, B. Kamins Medicated Acne Gel, some Clearasil products and Loroxide Acne Lotion.

Products vary in their concentration of benzoyl peroxide, efficacy, individual suitability and tendency to cause irritation.

Lavender is Toxic to Skin Cells

Further proof that dogmatic adherence to untested and theoretically unsound natural skin care practices is deleterious, lavender has emerged as cytotoxic for skin.

Dermaxine (bio-cellular skin care products) claim erroneously that lavender has "cytophylactic properties (encouraging the growth of new skin cells) [and] stimulates the growth of new skin cells, which is a boon for any anti-aging skin care product."

While its fragrance may be pleasant and therapeutic (lavender is proven to slow brain waves), lavender does not produce net gain for skin.

For further information, see Cytotoxicity of Lavender Oil and its Major Components to Human Skin Cells.

Lavender is a major component of natural, aromatherapy and organic skin care brands such as Decleor, Dr. Hauschka, Yonka, Jurlique, Avalon Organics and Darphin.

Lavender Cytotoxicity Reference

Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its major components to human skin cells. A. Prashar, I. C. Locke, C. S. Evans. Cell Proliferation, Volume 37 Issue 3, Pages 221 - 229.

Lavender Cytotoxicity Notes

Skin Care Failure: Only Use Natural or Organic Skin Care — About Natural Skin Care, Melbourne Dermatology.

About lavender — Melbourne Dermatology.

Skin care products containing lavender — Melbourne Dermatology.

Further Harm Avoidance Topics

Information About Rosacea Is Not Rosacea Treatment Knowledge.

Relatively Deleterious Properties and Ideas in Skin Care.

Unfortunate Aspects of Mainstream Skin "Care."

Rosaceae "Acaena Novae-Zelandiae"

Rosaceae >

Rosaceae Acaena Novae-Zelandiae — Bidgee Widgee.

Kulin: Murreyuke.

Royal Melbourne Botanical Gardens. March 2, 2008.

Photo Credit: Peter Wilson.


What's in a name?

that which we call a rose

By any other name would smell as sweet.

Juliet in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, 1594.


The word "rosacea" originates in the late Nineteenth Century from the feminine Latin word "rosaceus" meaning "rose coloured."

The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species.


In colonial Melbourne traditional western foodstuffs were often in short supply.

Early settlers turned to many indigenous resources as substitutes.

Acaena was widely used as a substitute for tea.


See distrubution for Rosaceae Acaena Novae-Zelandiae at Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Visit the Rosaceae Homepage at the University of Illinois.

Visit the Genome Database for Rosaceae at Washington State University.

List of the Rosaceae family plants.


Author: Peter Wilson.

Reviewed: Tuesday, January 26, 2010.


Further Information: Rosacea News July 2017 : Rosacea News June 2017 : Rosacea News March 2017 : Rosacea News February 2017 : Rosacea News December 2016 : Rosacea News November 2016 : Rosacea News October 2016 : Rosacea News September 2016 : Rosacea News August 2016 : Rosacea News July 2016 : Rosacea News June 2016 : Rosacea News May 2016 : Rosacea News April 2016 : Rosacea News March 2016 : Rosacea News February 2016 : Rosacea News January 2016 : Rosacea News December 2015 : Rosacea News June 2014 : Rosacea News May 2014 : Rosacea News April 2014 : Rosacea News March 2014 : Rosacea News February 2014 : Rosacea News January 2014 : Rosacea News December 2013 : Rosacea News November 2013 : Rosacea News October 2013 : Rosacea News September 2013 : Rosacea News August 2013 : Rosacea News July 2013 : Rosacea News June 2013 : Rosacea News May 2013 : Rosacea News April 2013 : Rosacea News November 2012 : Rosacea News August 2012 : Rosacea News August 2011 : Rosacea News July 2011 : Rosacea News June 2011 : Rosacea News May 2011 : Rosacea News September 2010 : Rosacea News August 2010 : Rosacea News July 2010 : Rosacea News June 2010 : Rosacea News May 2010 : Rosacea News April 2010 : Rosacea News March 2010 : Rosacea News February 2010 : 2010 Rosacea News : July 2009 Rosacea News : April 2009 Rosacea News : March 2009 Rosacea News : February 2009 Rosacea News : January 2009 Rosacea News : December 2008 Rosacea News : November 2008 Rosacea News : October 2008 Rosacea News : September 2008 Rosacea News : August 2008 Rosacea News : July 2008 Rosacea News : June 2008 Rosacea News : May 2008 Rosacea News : April 2008 Rosacea News : March 2008 Rosacea News : February 2008 Rosacea News : January 2008 Rosacea News : REDLOG — The Rosacea Weblog :




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